Gasyfying systems for alternative fuel
Waste code 19 12 10
Many years of research on the transformation of organic waste into energyallowed the construction of the reactor QM12 for gasification of solid fuel.Tests confirmed the operating systems that the whole process including thecombustible gas formed causes very low emissions. Resulting in a small amount of gas to meet all the requirements incineration plants by the European Union. It is possible to expand the gasification system, so that the end product of the system was not a gas, but electricity and heat. The whole process of gasificationis controlled, operated and registered by a computerized automation system.
QM12 reactor may be adapted to different types of waste disposal such as:
- industrial (railway sleepers, tires)
- animal (bone meal)
What happens in gasifying chamber…
Gasification is a process that converts carbonaceous materials, such as biomass, wood, various types of waste including municipal and industrial waste, coal, petroleum, petroleum coke, into a calorific gas consisting mainly of carbon monoxide, hydrogen and methane under high temperatures. There are three main stages in the gasifier:
- Drying: The liberated water vapor then reacts during gasification of coal, converting it into carbon monoxide and hydrogen.
- Pyrolysis: at temperatures of 250-750 ° C proceeds thermal cracking (pyrolysis) to the gas containing CO, H2, CH4 and CO2, water vapor and fumes aromatics(benzene, toluene, xylenes, etc.) to Smolek and oil and charcoal and minerals.
- Gasification: In this phase, which requires temperatures above 750 ° C, runs a number of endothermic reactions with oxygen deficit and partly with water vapor,CO2 and even with that liquid and solid materials pyrolysis transformed mainlyinto carbon monoxide and hydrogen, and partly even methane.
The efficiency of the process determined by the ratio of chemical energyproduced synthesis gas for chemical energy raw material. In practice, this efficiency reaches within 98%, depending on the technology used, raw materialmoisture and plant size.
After gasification, the gas is burned in the combustion chamber and is directed toa waste heat boiler where it is hot water or steam. The chilled gas is directed to afilter system where it is the groom to the level required by the regulations. The quality of exhaust emissions will be subject to continuous measurement.
The temperature of the gasification process is in the range of 400-850 ° C. The temperature in the combustion chamber reaches a level above 900 ° C and must guarantee that the residence time of flue gas at temperatures above 850 ° C for 2 seconds.
Scope of supply
The options offer a standard installation of 5 MWh of thermal power, built of the following components:
- Installation of waste loading – the floor moving and the conveyor
- Fuel will be supplied into the heating self-dumping vehicles. Then, the fuel will be offloaded to the two bunkers equipped with movable floors with a totalcapacity of 140 m3, which is a daily supply of fuel for heating. With the floors andconveyor belts moving the fuel will be automatically transported to the tank atzgazowarce. From the tank, through a system of loading drawer, this fuel willpower the zgazowarkę. This arrangement provides a simple and efficient systemof fuel loading.
- Gasifier QM12
- Gasifier is the “heart” of the entire installation and converts it to combustiblefeedstock gas with a calorific value of about 7 kJ/m3. It is a large tank insulated and lined with brick, which is powered żroodporną anyone interested levels ofair jets utrzymijących gasification process. Gasification of waste slag formingmaterial is flammable, which can be classified as safe waste. Zachodąceprocesses in this unit are described in the previous chapter. Our experience isthat the operating costs of this device are significantly below the typicaloperating costs of boilers.
- The combustion chamber exhaust guarantees being at 850 ° C for 2s.
- For the purpose of installation of a new combustion chamber was designed, with some modifications in relation to the previously used chambers. Introducedburner construction dust close to the burner, the air delivery system was modified into the chamber. With these modifications in the combustion chambertemperature will be maintained in the range 850 – 1000 ° C for 2 seconds, ensuring burning of any environmentally harmful gases.
- Water Boiler / Steam 5 MWth
- The exhaust gases pass from the combustion chamber to a waste water boilerconnected to the heating network.
- The proposed installation of the proposed modern, high performance, semi-dryflue gas cleaning technology. It consists in conditioning the gas and contactingthem with the sorbent in the form of calcium hydroxide Ca (OH) 2 maintained in the circulation. The reactor is integrated with pneumatic dust collector (fabric filter). The exhaust gases are exhausted from the boiler through the reactor and the dust collector with fan, which is discharged into the chimney. Flue gas cleaning processes taking place in the reactor and de-dusting device.
- Exhaust fan – used to force through the system during the purification andinjection into the chimney.
- Activated carbon filter
- The carbon filter protection, used to remove dioxins and furans. The basisfiltration system is patented by the MTF composite absorbent filter. This is acarbon tube filter with combination of sedimentation of sorption.
- Chimney equipped with a continuous measurement of gas
- The proposed plant will be equipped with a system for continuous monitoring ofexhaust emissions, in accordance with the law. Because of the formal classification of alternative fuel as waste, the installation must meet the emissions requirements for waste incineration plants.
- Applied Automation allows you to work in the heat unattended. The task ofsupervising the crew will only be suitable loading installation and moving floors.